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2016 | 前言 | “我是他者”:全球化语境中的叠合反应

 

胡斌(学术主持、广州美术学院美术馆馆长)

“我是他者”根植于西方现当代哲学、思想和文学中的“自我”与“他者”关系的讨论。我们以其来作为本次影像节的主题,是要在一个全球化的语境中从探讨以此延伸的多重之义。

一、主题的缘起

实际上,今年6月1日至2日,我们在广州就曾与巴黎第八大学合作举办过“我是他者”系列论坛的第一回。论坛主题阐述揭示:“‘我是他者’引自法国象征主义诗人阿蒂尔·兰波在1871 年的一封信——《致保罗·得梅尼的信》,他在信中写道‘我是一个他者’。在这普罗米修斯式的句子中,兰波预示了将来的诗人和艺术家的任务是:面向未知的领域敞开,在预知的实践中将会获得各种创作形式。这一思想从超现实主义开始,对20世纪的艺术产生了深刻的影响。兰波的所有诗集,以及他的流浪生活,不断地与众多当代艺术作品产生共鸣:‘本我’,‘我’,‘自我’与‘相异性’。”第一回论坛副标题为《当代艺术中的“自我图像”与“他者图像”》,集合了中法多位学者、艺术家的专题演讲和对谈,试图探寻当代艺术中的“他者”与“自我”的建构模式,以及艺术家的身份问题及其在不同视野当中的差异。

此次影像节,我们的总题目便是“我是他者”,是想把讨论与展览现场高度结合起来。因为此次影像节既有国外纪实摄影、新闻摄影名作以及影像展映,又有国内活跃的实验摄影影像艺术家的个展集群,还有基于本土互动的新兴团体探索以及与大众图像产生链接的部分。就摄影和影像媒介本身而言,它成为自我和所谓现实事物之间的居间介质,自我往往需要这样的镜像投射来形成确认。而在汇集而来的不同地域所组成的“万国图景”影像中,本土与全球、东方与西方、此地与别处等种种常常作为“相异性”的因素高度交织在一起,变成我中有你,你中有我的融合状态,相互建构却又不断消解着固有的身份建构。而更有意思的是,影像节中的某些单元本身就很难以绝然的东西内外来划分,它们处于难以界定的“中间地带”。这些“之间”的状态既包括外部的地域关系、媒介关系、虚拟与现实关系,还包括自身内部的自我与他者双重身份、梦与真、生与死以及视觉观看与生理心理活动的叠合反应。我们希望以展览与论坛议题重合的方式让这一话题的研讨走向深广,并获得持续性的学术效应。

二、综合的实验

在此次影像节中,我们的有些单元已经不是所谓的既有学科规范内的摄影与影像,而是颠覆了媒介和所谓本体问题界别的综合实验。

在学界,对于几类影像经常没有严格区分,录像、实验电影、独立动画、新媒体艺术等都被囊括到笼统的影像名目之下。比如在2011年民生现代美术馆的“中国影像艺术20年展”中,展览方就试图以影像(英文则译为Moving Image)指对过去20年中国当代艺术中出现的所有动态影像。研究者董冰峰曾就此提出商榷意见,他引用德勒兹的观点认为,电影应该置于一个时间关系当中去理解而不是只看到影片本身。他觉得“Moving Image”这个词似乎对应的是电影诞生之初的画面运动与组织的关系,而中国当代艺术家之所以喜用“活动影像”的概念是因为,他们大都以绘画与雕塑背景介入电影,缺乏电影本身的训练,故而首要关注的问题还是画面。(董冰峰:《1980年代以来中国艺术家的电影影像》)在2015年湖北美术馆的“再影像:光的实验场”中,策展人将传统的摄影、纪录片、独立影像以及基于计算机技术而发展起来的新媒体呈现、甚至以声光电为媒介的融合性装置都纳入了展览中。有的学者注意到展览题目的英文翻译使用的是“Beyond Image”,似乎带有超越既有的影像认识,呈现另一种影像状态的意思。这正是源于对目前越来越综合和错综复杂的影像艺术的真实认知。

我并非要否认多个影像概念之间的区别,但是,我们所面对的真实情况就是这几者之间越来越呈现出的交叉与模糊状态。专注于影像艺术策展与写作的李振华曾在《关于录像艺术——录像艺术的起源、分类,展出决定的特征》一文中谈到了录像与电影、行为记录、表演、动画、短片、纪录片,以及新媒体艺术等之间的关联与区别,从中我们也可以看到录像艺术与这种种表达方式相融合的特点。

除了影像艺术自身所包含的类型之间的交错,在当代艺术领域,还有一个突出的现象就是学科和角色的界限也变得越来越模糊。一些当代艺术的实践,不仅仅是固有的媒介,如绘画、影像、装置、行为之间的界限被打破,甚至于艺术与其他学科(如社会学、人类学等),艺术家与研究者、策展人之间的界限也被逾越。正如格罗伊斯(Boris Groys)所说的,当代艺术就是一种展览实践,艺术家和策展人正变得愈加难以界定,“创作艺术与展示艺术之间不再有本质的区别”。

还必须提到的是网络以及虚拟艺术这一新兴领域的变化。现在网络已经成为艺术创作重要的基地和平台,基于网络和电脑所产生的艺术越来越成为一个重要的现象。在这种被称为“后网络”的语境当中,网络不只是作为传播的工具,它本身就构成我们周遭的现实。因此,当下涌现出来的一些青年艺术家的创作将这种日常的电脑网络的消遣与工作变成了艺术实践,现实与虚拟,私人空间与公共空间之间的界限也被打破。这是我们在谈影像艺术的新阶段时所需要看到的现象。

三、视觉穿刺

处于永无止境的留存和永无止境的消逝之中的影像,并非一个个没有温度的图像,它还会带来生理上的尖锐反应。我想用一个医学上的名词“穿刺”来表达“针刺、提取、化验”的媒介、社会、文化意涵。首先,我们强调摄影和影像在媒介上的直接性和穿透力,它像是使用者的器官延伸,直接观照到现实事物,以至于忘却了居间的媒介中转。当然,在我们这个时代,任何反映灾难、苦痛、暴力的图像都可能变成可供欣赏的视觉景观,也可能被视为冒犯观者的行为而遭遇刻意回避,如何让观者深切地体会并控诉这种种世界悲剧。这让我想到艺术家哈伦·法罗基(Harun Faroki)在《不灭的火》中以香烟烫伤自己的行动来反衬汽油弹灼伤的效力所构建的视觉与生理刺痛之间的关联。

其二是指对社会的介入性,在一些摄影和影像那里,它们不只是呈现社会的某些面向,它们的取样产生了连锁的化学效应,成为切入社会现实与生活的重要力量。比如在“珠三角艺术单位”的展示单元中,我们选取了植根于珠三角的各类团体式艺术组合,它们所针对的问题和组织的结构并不一样,与社会产生互动的方式也各有不同。在具体的实践过程中,它们与这个区域产生了水乳相溶的结合,且呈现出某种地域性格,它们并不强大,却又像毛细管一样在这个场域中发挥着意想不到的作用。当然,更不用说那些直面触动人们神经的纪实图像所引发的社会政治效应了。

总体说来,在这个开放而多元却又积聚了众多冲突性因子的新兴城市深圳,其本身就纠葛着多种的身份认同焦虑。我们的影像节希望成为连接种种内外经验的聚焦点,以此不只是从世界图景下反观自身区域,也从内部来观照自我的复杂性和多种可能性,并让观者从社会文化到身体感知等各个方面获得新的体验。

“JE est un autre” rooted in the discussion about the relationship between “the self” and "the other" in the western modern and contemporary philosophy, thoughts and literature. We use it as the theme of this video and image festival is to explore the extended multiple significances in a context of globalization.

I. The Origin of the Theme

In fact, from June 1st to June 2nd in this year, we cooperated with Université Paris 8 to hold the first symposium of “JE est un autre” series forum. The theme of this symoisium elaborated and revealed: "'JE est un autre' is quoted from a letter of the French symbolism poet Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud in 1871-"Lettre à Paul Demeny", in this letter he wrote 'Car Je est un autre'. In this Promethean sentence, Rimbaud predicted the mission of poets and artists in the future is: to open themselves to the unknown fields, and they will obtain all kinds of creation forms from the prescient practices. From the beginning of the surrealism, this thought has had a profound effect on the 20th century’s art. All the poetry anthologies of Rimbaud, and his vagabond life, are constantly resonating with many contemporary art works: 'id', 'me', 'self' and 'diversity'." The first symposium’s subtitle is "Images de soi, images de I’autre dans I’art contemporain", it assembled many French and Chinese scholars and artists for special speeches and dialogues, it tried to explore the construction modes of "the other" and " the self" in contemporary art, as well as the identity issues of artists and their differences among the various visual fields.

Our general topic of this video and image festival is “JE est un autre”, we want to highly combine the discussions and the exhibition scenes. Because the video and image festival has foreign documentary photography, famous photojournalism works and the video screening, as well as the colony formation of domestic active experimental photographic artists’ solo exhibitions, and the explorations based on the local interactions of emerging groups and the parts of public images that produced links. As for the medium of photography and video itself, it has become the intermediate medium between the self and the so-called reality, the self often requires this kind of mirroring projection to form the confirmation. While in the "universal images" video that collected from different geographical regions, local and global, east and west, this place and elsewhere and such factors often as the highly intertwined "diversity" factors, the relationship between them have become the syncretic status that you are in my mind and I am in your mind, they constructing each other and continuous dissolving the inherent identity construction. The more interesting thing is, it is difficult to divide some sections of the video and image festival into absolutely east and west, domestic and overseas, they are in the undefinable "intermediate zone". These "in-between" status include the external regional relations, media relations, the relationship between virtual and reality, and also include the double identities of the self and the other within one’s own, dream and truth, life and death, and the congruent reaction of visual seeing with physiological and psychological activity. We hope the coincident mode of the exhibitions and the symposium’s topic will make the discussion of this theme broader and deeper, and obtain continuous academic effect.

II. Comprehensive Experiments

In this video and image festival, some of our units are already not the so-called existing disciplinary norms of photography and video, but the comprehensive experiments that have subverted the subsector between the media and the so-called ontological problem.

In academic circles, it doesn’t have strictly distinction for several types of videos, tape video, experimental film, independent animation and new media art are belonging to the general name of video. For example, in 2011, in “Moving Image in China: 1988-2011” of Shanghai Minsheng Art Museum, the organizer tried to use moving image to refer to all the dynamic images in Chinese contemporary art during the past 20 years. Dong Bingfen the researcher gave his opinions about it, he quoted Gilles Deleuze's viewpoint that a film should be placed in a time relationship to understand and we shouldn’t only to see the film itself. He thought the word "Moving Image” were corresponding the relationship between image movement and the organization at the beginning of the birth of film, the reason that Chinese contemporary artists are pleased with the concept of "Moving Image" is most of them were in the background of painting and sculpture when they get involved with film, they were short of the training of film, therefore the top issue they concerned about is still images. (Dong Bingfeng: “Film Images of Chinese Artists since the 1980s”) In 2015, in "Beyond Image: Laboratory of Light" of Hubei Art Museum, the curators included the traditional photography, the documentary films, the independent videos and images, the developing new media presentation based on computer technology, even the syncretic installations with sound and light medium to the exhibition. Some scholars noticed the English translation of the exhibition topics was "Beyond Image", it seemed to have the meaning of beyond the existing understanding of video and image and present another status of video and image. This is from the real cognition of the increasingly comprehensive and complex video and image art at present.

I am not to deny the distinctions of the concepts of multiple videos and images, however, the reality we are facing is the increasingly intersectional and blurred state of these kinds of videos and images. Li Zhenhua who focuses on video art curation has talked about the relevancies and the distinctions of video and film, action art record, performance, animation, short film, documentary film and new media art in “About Video Art: The Origin, Classification of Video Art, the Characteristics Decided by Display”, from which we can see the characteristics of the fusion of video art and these kinds of expressions.

In addition to the self-contained crossovers of different types of video and image art, in the field of contemporary art, there is also a prominent phenomenon that the boundaries of disciplines and characters has become increasingly blurred. Some contemporary art practices have not only broken the boundaries of inherent medium such as painting, video, installation, and action art, and even the boundaries of art and other disciplines (such as sociology, anthropology, etc.), artist, researcher and curator have also been overcome. As Boris Groys said, contemporary art is a kind of exhibition practice, artist and curator are becoming increasingly difficult to define, "there is no longer essential difference between creative art and display art".

One thing also has to be mentioned is the change of emerging field of network and virtual art. Now the network has become an important base and platform of artistic creation, the art that produced by the base of the network and computer are becoming an increasingly important phenomenon. In this context of be called "post-network", the network is not just as a spread tool, which itself constitutes the reality around us. Therefore, the creations of some current emerging young artists have turned the daily computer network’s entertainment and work into the art practice, the boundaries between reality and virtual, private space and public space have also been broken. This is the phenomenon we need to see when we talk about a new stage of video and image art.

III. Visual Puncture

The video in the endless preservation and vanishing, is not cold pictures one after another, it also brings sharp physiological reaction. I want to use a medical term "puncture" to express the media, social and cultural implications of " needle, extract, laboratory test". First of all, we emphasize the directness and the penetrating power on media of photography and video, it is like the extension of the user’s organ, could directly observe the material objects, even makes us forget the intervening medium transfer. In our times, of course, any image reflects disaster, pain, violence could become the visual landscape for appreciation, it could also be seen as the behavior to offend the viewers then be avoided studiously, how to make the audiences deeply understand and charge these kinds of tragedies in the world. This reminds me of Harun Faroki the artist who constructs the link between the visual and physiological pricking by using the action of scald himself with a cigarette to contrast the efficacy of the petrol bomb’s ambustion in “Inextinguishable Fire”.

The second refers to the intervention to the society, some photography and videos not only present some aspects of the society, their sampling has produced the chain chemical effect, and have become the important strength that cut into the social reality and life. For example, in the exhibition units of “Art Institutions in the Pearl River Delta”, we selected a variety of collective art combinations rooted in the Pearl River Delta, they are addressing the different issues and organization structures, and the way they interact with society are not the same too. In the specific process of practice, they produce a complete harmonious combination with this region, and present a certain regional character, they are not strong, but like capillaries they paly an unexpected role in this field. Of course, not to mention the social and political effects caused by those documentary images facing to touch people’s sensitive nerves.

Generally, many conflicting factors are accumulating in Shenzhen, the emerging city of openness and diversification, itself entanglements with a variety of identity anxiety. Our video and image festival wants to become a connection point of a variety of internal and external experiences, not only reviews its area from the world picture, also observes its complexity and variety of possibilities from the inside, and makes the audiences to gain the new experiences from many aspects such as social culture and the body perception.

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