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2016 | 国内单元 | 观看的诡计

——从影像节的主题与影像艺术家个展集群的视觉走向谈起

 

杨小彦

 

今天,讨论摄影已经无涉客观性。

曾几何时,关于摄影的客观性,在中国摄影语境中的表述是“纪实”,是促成这一门手艺活赢得社会广泛承认的基本信念。的确,因为我们经历过一个图像空白的年代,日常观看被规训到了甚至连摄影家自己都无从觉察的程度,所以,一旦观看的权利回归到手持摄影机的人们的手中,所激发出来的占领空白题材的热情,就必然极大地促成了纪实摄影运动的迅速展开。面对这样的纪实狂潮,有时我不免会想起文革后期被批判的著名电影《创业》中那个领导开发石油的党委书记华程的豪言壮语:“我现在总的感觉是,解放了!”

吕楠和袁东平共同拍摄的《精神病人》,成了那个时期辉煌的象征。众多摄影家像敏锐的猎人四处主动出击,悄悄接近几乎从来无人光顾的底层现场,狡猾而不无蛮横地进入隐没在人性深处的色情场所,把民工、妓女、嫖客、可怜的移民抓拍到真诚而充满渴求的个人镜头中,以营造并书写一段被遗弃的历史。无疑,那是一个激动人心的时刻,当历史以一种“客观”的质感出现时,没有人会怀疑其中的价值,直到有一天,诚实的侯登科在人生的最后岁月中发出了不无惊人的浩叹,对底层人和摄影家的关系,也就是“他们”和“我们”的关系做出沉重的反思,对“我们”如何通过“他们”而获得社会名声,如何成为举世公认的“伟大”摄影家,而“他们”却依然故我地生活在原来的世界中,依然沉默无语,提出了个人抗议。我以为正是从这里开始,关于拍摄的伦理反思才由此而打开了一道门缝,理性之光才得以有所穿透。

但是,新技术的发展更加令人不可思议。数码化的迅速普及,电脑编程无所不用其极地模仿人类视觉所有可能的观看风格与效果,先是把客观性逼到了墙角,然后再从容不迫地驱逐出图像的伊甸园。结果是,今天我们谈论摄影,或者说,谈论利用机器观看之眼摄取世界的意图、行为及其结果,就不得不脱离摄影原有的辉煌。可以这样说,正是拍摄者自身,不管他们使用何种机器,生产的是静止图像还是活动影像,呈现的是综合装置还是编程改造,展陈的是二维还是三维,其每日不断的实践正有效地颠覆着视觉世界的原先逻辑。

这一视觉实践的变化也有力地改变了我们谈论影像的方式。过去,在那个客观性甚嚣尘上的日子里,图像是我们研究的主要对象,我们通过对图像的解读,既还原摄影家拍摄的最初意图,又重建失去的历史记忆,从而让逝去的时光复活在视觉的细节之中并获得新生。我在1986年时提出要把谈论摄影的主题从图像转移到拍摄者与被拍摄者之间的关系上,通过解读图像寻觅摄影家行动的逻辑。我在那个时候指出,只有摆脱了单纯的图像构成本身,我们才能理解摄影的真实意义,理解图像在社会实践中的作用。但是今天,随着数码化的急剧发展,随着智能技术的开发,我发现谈论的对象正在产生革命性的转变,我们不仅要从图像解读中脱身出来,我们甚至要从拍摄者与被拍摄者之间的关系中抽离,彻底地回到观看本身,通过对观看行为的分析来解构视觉世界的崭新奇观。也就是说,在这样一个高科技的背景下,观看具有更为复杂的策略,观看成为一种诡计,叫做观看的诡计,以空前的姿态去挑战长久以来人类肉眼所获得的日常世界的繁华的表象。

我觉得这个个展集群,尽管选择的只是十来个中年和年轻的视觉艺术家的作品,但从效果看,足以证明我之所说并不虚妄,他们几乎无一例外而又各自独立地呈现了一种观看的诡计,用以建构一个超越日常视觉世界的意义的乌托邦。也就是说,在这个乌托邦里,观看的意义甚至比视觉呈现更为重要。只是,和一般观念性思考不同,在这里,所有的作品均巧妙地回到了观看本身,成为不断地拆解与重新命名观看的一系列独特的语句。

一开始马良就不是一个追求客观性的摄影家,他的自我定位是艺术家,否则,就不能理解为什么一个做创意颇为成就的广告人,突然之间就把创意甩开,用相机去建构一个有悖于常识的视觉世界。更有甚者,他身上天生的戏剧因素因为追忆父亲的需要而被激活,于是马良成为可能是目前中国最富成就的木偶设计者、制作者和木偶戏编剧与导演。对于马良来说,生活本身就是一出接一出从不间断的戏剧,悲喜情绪在其中大起大落,铸造了我们对此岸的牢固定义。他的世界就是从这样一系列的变动中诞生,观看成为联结我与世界的关系的、环环相扣的无尽的锁链。我猜测张晓的意图是“复活”邮局时代的通俗传播方式,但又改变其中的意义。他使用标有单位名称的专门信封,嵌进与之无关的日常图像,让两者在并置中产生视觉冲突,从而突显其被模糊掉了的各自的本来意义,从而让日常的荒诞在毫不相关的两类因素的对峙中自动生成。汤南南通过宏观与微观的双重观看改变对象的原有性质,当海浪隐喻为山地、昆虫挣扎隐喻为追日时,对象就不再是对象,而是被重新定义的存在。陈海舒是一个多媒体的艺术家,他承续了西方对于维苏威火山的记忆,以其为样本,把作为自然存在的对象化约为人类思考险境时所产生的困惑与惊恐的表征,并在从容不迫的过程中,让困惑与惊恐视觉化,变成丝丝入扣的感受,内化到思维深处,搅乱记忆的原本路径。孙彦初直接以照片为媒介,通过涂抹改变内中形象,而让照片呈现为“绘画”,从而改变传统对于摄影与绘画的认知,用以拓宽其中的表达。骆丹回到十九世纪下半叶的湿板摄影,用火棉胶的传统技术“再现”或“制造”曾经的历史痕迹。当《素歌》获得摄影界一致公认的效果之后,鲜有人再度思考他的原初意图。在我看来,他的原初意图是,通过独特的影纹“还原”历史感的过程中,历史感本身必然成为怀疑对象,而让影纹重新独立出来。也就是说,骆丹与其说关心拍摄对象的历史感,不如说他通过这样的一种追忆古老技法的障眼法,让影纹从历史感中脱身而出,让影纹最终成为影纹。张晋是科学家,置身于对微观自然演化的紧张探讨当中,而其中的视觉效果却提醒他,如何让思想被看见,本身是一个人文的课题。结果是,他就轻而易举地实现了他的观察,让微观成为思想的载体,并以视觉的方式被重新创造出来。视觉本身所固有的戏剧性是张宪勇不断考虑的主题,但他的戏剧性不是来自日常表象,而是来自内心梦境。他把隐藏内心的恐慌通过重新布置成为被观看的现实,从而让梦可睹可触,并且呼啸着穿越人们的视线,走向不可知的未来,其中隐示着现实的荒诞与扭曲。长期以来,慕蓉拖鞋一直固执地生活在自己的观看当中,无视社会习俗的压迫,通过其锐利的双眼,在镜头中重现个人骚乱的直观真相。这一个个骚乱一被众人窥视,却从来没有人正视其存在。慕蓉拖鞋的使命是,他个人骚乱正当活在正视当中,而无须承受由来已久的恐惧之苦。黄京与其说是在观看,不如说是在用观看去定义物体关系的主观构成,对他来说,构成本身就是一场不无危险的平衡游戏,它存活在视觉中,然后通过观看而获得客观存在的理由。苏梓敬同样试图通过观看建构一个完全不能被观看到的个人内心世界,他的想法可能是,一旦被观看到了,观看本身就会成为一种事实,而让新的物象自动生成。朱强和木格维持了一种表面的客观性,但却在日常观察中,通过对物像的偶然关系的捕捉去颠覆这一客观性,而让观看在呈现中成为主体,从而证明观看的第一性,先有观看,然后,对象才会自动生成。

我粗略地议论了一下这一集群展览中的作品的可能意义,提示人们在这些似乎彼此没有关联的作品中看到观看的诡计。我的意思是,如前述,在今天,高科技革新视觉观看与生产的方式的同时,也在改写我们对于世界表象的认知。在这一革命的过程中,观看日益重要,不仅覆盖着物理世界的原本存在,而且,还让内心外化为可见的形式,从而让观看成为视觉艺术的中心。在这样的氛围中,观看也摆脱了以往关于风格变化的陈词滥调,观看终于成为主体,成为塑造时代的狡猾方式,让世界变得更加不可思议。

The Trick of Seeing: Discussion about the theme of International Urban Image Festival and the visual trend of the colony formation of image artists’ solo exhibitions

Today, the discussion of photography doesn’t involve objectivity.

Only a short while ago, the objectivity about photography was expressed as the “documentary” in the context of Chinese photography, which was the basic belief had contributed to this artisanship gained widely social recognition. Indeed, because we have had the years of lacking image, the daily seeing was disciplined to a level even the photographers could not aware of, so, once the right of seeing returned to the hands of people who were holding cameras, the enthusiasm of occupy vacant subjects stimulated by it, was bound to greatly contributed to the rapid expansion of documentary photography movements. In the face of such documentary torrent, sometimes I would think of the brave words of the party secretary named Hua Cheng who leads the petroleum exploitation in the famous criticized movie "The Pioneers" during the late time of the Cultural Revolution: "Now my general feeling is I am liberated!"

 

“Psychopath” is shot by Lv Nan and Yuan Dongping has become a glory symbol of that time. Many photographers were being proactive around like keen hunters, they quietly got close to the bottom sites almost no one had ever visited, crafty and brutally went into erotic places were hidden in the depth of human nature, they captured the migrant workers, prostitutes, johns and poor immigrants with their sincere and eager individual scenes to build and make an abandoned history. There is no doubt that it was an exciting moment, when the history turns up with a sense of "objective", no one would doubt its value, until one day, honest Hou Dengke sighed surprisingly and deeply in his last years, he made a grief reflection on the relationship between the lower class and the photographers which is relationship between "them" and "we", how did "we" get social reputation by "them", and has become the universally acknowledged "great" photographers, while "they" were still living in the old world, and still remaining silent, they has put forward their personal protests. I think it is from here, the ethical reflection on shooting has opened the door a little, and the rational light could pass through it.

 

However, the development of new technology is more incredible. The rapid popularization of digitalization, computer programming doing its utmost to imitate all possible human seeing style and effect, first we cornered the objectivity, and then driven it out of the image garden of Eden. As a result, today when we talk about photography, or the intention, the action and the result of taking a photograph of the world by the machine’s eye of seeing, we have to separate them from the original glory of photography. It can be said that it is the photographers themselves, no matter which kind of machine they use, the production is still image or moving image, the presentation is a comprehensive installation or programming modification, the display of an exhibition is two-dimensional or three-dimensional, their daily continuous practices are subverting the logic of visual world effectively.

 

The change of visual practice has effectively changed the way we talk about the video and photography. In the past, during the time that objectivity made a great clamor, image was the main object of our research, by the interpretation of an image, we have restored the original purpose of a photographer’s shooting and have reconstructed the lost historical memory, so the lost time could be resurrected in the visual details and renew itself. In 1986, I proposed when we talk about photography we should transfer the theme from image to the relationship between the photographer and the subject, and find the logic of a photographer’s action through the interpretation of his image. At that time, I pointed out that only break away from the simple image composition itself, we could understand the real significance of photography and the role of image in social practice. But today, as the rapid development of digitalization, and the exploitation of smart technology, I find out revolutionary change are taking place in the object that we talked about, not only should we get away from the image interpretation, but also we should get away from the relationship between the photographer and the subject, then thoroughly back to the seeing itself, through the analysis of viewing behavior we could deconstruct the new wonders of the visual world. That is to say, in the context of such a high-tech world, the seeing has the more complicated strategy, the seeing has become a trick, it called the trick of seeing, with an unprecedented attitude it will challenge the bustling appearance of daily world that people gained by their eyes.

 

As for me, while this colony formation of solo exhibitions only selects a dozen middle-aged and young visual artists’ works, from the effect, it is enough to prove that I was telling the truth, they are presenting a trick of seeing almost without exception while independently, to construct a utopia that beyond the meaning of daily visual world. That is to say, in this utopia, the meaning of seeing is even more important than the visual presentation. Only, it is different from the general conceptual thinking, here, all the works have ingeniously returned to the seeing itself, and have become a series of unique statements that continually disassemble and rename the seeing.

 

Ma Liang is not a photographer who pursue the objectivity from the beginning, his self-image is an artist, otherwise, you will never understand why a quite accomplished adpersonin in creativity suddenly got rid of the creativity and used camera to construct a visual world which against common sense. What's more, his natural drama factors were activated for the need for reminisce about his father, then Ma Liang has become probably the most accomplished puppet designer, fabricator, puppet show writer and director in China. For Ma Liang, life itself is an ongoing drama, sorrow and joy emotions change radically in it, it has cast our firm definition of temporality. His world was born in such a series of changes, seeing has become the interlocking endless chain that keep the relationship between me and the world. I guess Zhang Xiao’s intention is to "resurrect" the popular mode of transmission in the era of post office, but change the meaning within at the same time. He uses specialized envelope marked with company names, embeds the unrelated daily images in them, makes them cause the visual conflict in collocation, thereby to highlight their blurred original meanings, and the daily absurd being generated automatically in the confrontation of two unrelated classes of factors. Tang Nannan changes the original nature of the object through macroscopic seeing and microscopic seeing, when waves as the metaphor of mountain, insects struggle as the metaphor of sun-chasing, object is no longer the object, but is the redefined existence. Chen Haishu is a multimedia artist, he succeeds the western memory of Vesuvius volcano, and uses it as a sample, reduce the object of the natural existence to the representation of confusion and fear that generated by human’s thinking about dangerous situation, and in the unhurried process, visualized the confusion and fear, and turn them into a feeling of right on the best, and internalized it into deep thinking, disrupt the original path of memory. Sun Yanchu uses pictures as the direct medium, changes the internal images through paint, and the photos would appear as "painting", which changes the traditional perception of photography and painting to broaden the internal expression. Luo Dan backs to the wet plate process in the second half of the nineteenth century, uses the traditional technology of collodion to "reproduce" or "manufacture" the traces of history. After "Simple Song" achieved the effect that recognized by the public, only few people would rethink his original intention. In my opinion, his original intention is, through the process of the unique shadows and lines’ "reduction" of historical sense, the historical sense itself will become an object of suspicion necessarily, while the shadows and lines will be independent again. That is to say, Luo Dan is not so much concern with the historical sense of the subject as he uses this kind of smoke screen to recall an ancient technique, let the shadows and lines get out from the historical sense, and make shadows and lines become the shadows and lines. Zhang Jin is a scientist, he put himself in the intense discussion about microscopic natural evolution, while the visual effect keeps reminding him, how to make the ideas being seen is a cultural issue. As a result, he realized his observation easily, the microcosmic has become the carrier of thought, and be recreated in the visual form. The intrinsic theatricality of vision is the theme of Zhang Xianyong’s constant consideration, but his theatricality is not come from the daily appearance, but come from the inner dream. He rearranges the hidden fear to become the reality being seen, so that the dream could be seen and be touched, and roaring past people’s sight, towards the unknown future, it implicating the absurdity and distortion of reality. For a long time, Murong Tuoxie has been stubbornly living in his own seeing, ignoring the oppression of social conventions, with his sharp eyes, she recreates the intuitive truth of personal riots by his lens. People peep these riots one by one, but no one has faced up to their existence. Murong Tuoxie's mission is, his personal riot is living in the confronting, without having to bear the long-standing fear.Huang Jing is not so much seeing as he defines the subjective constitution of object’s relationship by seeing, for him, the constitution itself is a balance game not without dangerous, it survived in the vision, and then gained its reason of objective existence by seeing. Su Zijing also trying to construct a personal inner world which completely couldn’t be seen, his ideas may be, once being seen, the seeing itself will become a kind of fact, and a new object will be generated automatically. Zhu Qiang and Mu Ge has maintained a surface objectivity, but in the daily observation, through the capture of casual relationship of objective images to overturn this objectivity, and make the seeing become the main body in the presentation, thus to prove the firstness of seeing, then, the object will be generated automatically.

 

I have roughly talked about the possible significance of the colony formation of solo exhibitions’ works, it prompts people to find the trick of seeing in these works which seem to be unrelated to each other. I mean, as the previous statement, today, high-tech is innovating the way of seeing and production, at the same time it also rewriting our perception of the world appearance. In the process of revolution, the seeing is becoming more and more important, it not only covers the original existence of the physical world, and also externalizes the inner into a visible form, so that the seeing could become the center of visual arts. In this kind of circumstance, the seeing was free from the past clichés about style changing, the seeing finally becomes the main body, and the cunning way of define the era, it makes the world become more incredible.

Today, the discussion of photography doesn’t involve objectivity.

Only a short while ago, the objectivity about photography was expressed as the “documentary” in the context of Chinese photography, which was the basic belief had contributed to this artisanship gained widely social recognition. Indeed, because we have had the years of lacking image, the daily seeing was disciplined to a level even the photographers could not aware of, so, once the right of seeing returned to the hands of people who were holding cameras, the enthusiasm of occupy vacant subjects stimulated by it, was bound to greatly contributed to the rapid expansion of documentary photography movements. In the face of such documentary torrent, sometimes I would think of the brave words of the party secretary named Hua Cheng who leads the petroleum exploitation in the famous criticized movie "The Pioneers" during the late time of the Cultural Revolution: "Now my general feeling is I am liberated!"

“Psychopath” is shot by Lv Nan and Yuan Dongping has become a glory symbol of that time. Many photographers were being proactive around like keen hunters, they quietly got close to the bottom sites almost no one had ever visited, crafty and brutally went into erotic places were hidden in the depth of human nature, they captured the migrant workers, prostitutes, johns and poor immigrants with their sincere and eager individual scenes to build and make an abandoned history. There is no doubt that it was an exciting moment, when the history turns up with a sense of "objective", no one would doubt its value, until one day, honest Hou Dengke sighed surprisingly and deeply in his last years, he made a grief reflection on the relationship between the lower class and the photographers which is relationship between "them" and "we", how did "we" get social reputation by "them", and has become the universally acknowledged "great" photographers, while "they" were still living in the old world, and still remaining silent, they has put forward their personal protests. I think it is from here, the ethical reflection on shooting has opened the door a little, and the rational light could pass through it.

However, the development of new technology is more incredible. The rapid popularization of digitalization, computer programming doing its utmost to imitate all possible human seeing style and effect, first we cornered the objectivity, and then driven it out of the image garden of Eden. As a result, today when we talk about photography, or the intention, the action and the result of taking a photograph of the world by the machine’s eye of seeing, we have to separate them from the original glory of photography. It can be said that it is the photographers themselves, no matter which kind of machine they use, the production is still image or moving image, the presentation is a comprehensive installation or programming modification, the display of an exhibition is two-dimensional or three-dimensional, their daily continuous practices are subverting the logic of visual world effectively.

The change of visual practice has effectively changed the way we talk about the video and photography. In the past, during the time that objectivity made a great clamor, image was the main object of our research, by the interpretation of an image, we have restored the original purpose of a photographer’s shooting and have reconstructed the lost historical memory, so the lost time could be resurrected in the visual details and renew itself. In 1986, I proposed when we talk about photography we should transfer the theme from image to the relationship between the photographer and the subject, and find the logic of a photographer’s action through the interpretation of his image. At that time, I pointed out that only break away from the simple image composition itself, we could understand the real significance of photography and the role of image in social practice. But today, as the rapid development of digitalization, and the exploitation of smart technology, I find out revolutionary change are taking place in the object that we talked about, not only should we get away from the image interpretation, but also we should get away from the relationship between the photographer and the subject, then thoroughly back to the seeing itself, through the analysis of viewing behavior we could deconstruct the new wonders of the visual world. That is to say, in the context of such a high-tech world, the seeing has the more complicated strategy, the seeing has become a trick, it called the trick of seeing, with an unprecedented attitude it will challenge the bustling appearance of daily world that people gained by their eyes.

As for me, while this colony formation of solo exhibitions only selects a dozen middle-aged and young visual artists’ works, from the effect, it is enough to prove that I was telling the truth, they are presenting a trick of seeing almost without exception while independently, to construct a utopia that beyond the meaning of daily visual world. That is to say, in this utopia, the meaning of seeing is even more important than the visual presentation. Only, it is different from the general conceptual thinking, here, all the works have ingeniously returned to the seeing itself, and have become a series of unique statements that continually disassemble and rename the seeing.

Ma Liang is not a photographer who pursue the objectivity from the beginning, his self-image is an artist, otherwise, you will never understand why a quite accomplished adpersonin in creativity suddenly got rid of the creativity and used camera to construct a visual world which against common sense. What's more, his natural drama factors were activated for the need for reminisce about his father, then Ma Liang has become probably the most accomplished puppet designer, fabricator, puppet show writer and director in China. For Ma Liang, life itself is an ongoing drama, sorrow and joy emotions change radically in it, it has cast our firm definition of temporality. His world was born in such a series of changes, seeing has become the interlocking endless chain that keep the relationship between me and the world. I guess Zhang Xiao’s intention is to "resurrect" the popular mode of transmission in the era of post office, but change the meaning within at the same time. He uses specialized envelope marked with company names, embeds the unrelated daily images in them, makes them cause the visual conflict in collocation, thereby to highlight their blurred original meanings, and the daily absurd being generated automatically in the confrontation of two unrelated classes of factors. Tang Nannan changes the original nature of the object through macroscopic seeing and microscopic seeing, when waves as the metaphor of mountain, insects struggle as the metaphor of sun-chasing, object is no longer the object, but is the redefined existence. Chen Haishu is a multimedia artist, he succeeds the western memory of Vesuvius volcano, and uses it as a sample, reduce the object of the natural existence to the representation of confusion and fear that generated by human’s thinking about dangerous situation, and in the unhurried process, visualized the confusion and fear, and turn them into a feeling of right on the best, and internalized it into deep thinking, disrupt the original path of memory. Sun Yanchu uses pictures as the direct medium, changes the internal images through paint, and the photos would appear as "painting", which changes the traditional perception of photography and painting to broaden the internal expression. Luo Dan backs to the wet plate process in the second half of the nineteenth century, uses the traditional technology of collodion to "reproduce" or "manufacture" the traces of history. After "Simple Song" achieved the effect that recognized by the public, only few people would rethink his original intention. In my opinion, his original intention is, through the process of the unique shadows and lines’ "reduction" of historical sense, the historical sense itself will become an object of suspicion necessarily, while the shadows and lines will be independent again. That is to say, Luo Dan is not so much concern with the historical sense of the subject as he uses this kind of smoke screen to recall an ancient technique, let the shadows and lines get out from the historical sense, and make shadows and lines become the shadows and lines. Zhang Jin is a scientist, he put himself in the intense discussion about microscopic natural evolution, while the visual effect keeps reminding him, how to make the ideas being seen is a cultural issue. As a result, he realized his observation easily, the microcosmic has become the carrier of thought, and be recreated in the visual form. The intrinsic theatricality of vision is the theme of Zhang Xianyong’s constant consideration, but his theatricality is not come from the daily appearance, but come from the inner dream. He rearranges the hidden fear to become the reality being seen, so that the dream could be seen and be touched, and roaring past people’s sight, towards the unknown future, it implicating the absurdity and distortion of reality. For a long time, Murong Tuoxie has been stubbornly living in his own seeing, ignoring the oppression of social conventions, with his sharp eyes, she recreates the intuitive truth of personal riots by his lens. People peep these riots one by one, but no one has faced up to their existence. Murong Tuoxie's mission is, his personal riot is living in the confronting, without having to bear the long-standing fear.Huang Jing is not so much seeing as he defines the subjective constitution of object’s relationship by seeing, for him, the constitution itself is a balance game not without dangerous, it survived in the vision, and then gained its reason of objective existence by seeing. Su Zijing also trying to construct a personal inner world which completely couldn’t be seen, his ideas may be, once being seen, the seeing itself will become a kind of fact, and a new object will be generated automatically. Zhu Qiang and Mu Ge has maintained a surface objectivity, but in the daily observation, through the capture of casual relationship of objective images to overturn this objectivity, and make the seeing become the main body in the presentation, thus to prove the firstness of seeing, then, the object will be generated automatically.

I have roughly talked about the possible significance of the colony formation of solo exhibitions’ works, it prompts people to find the trick of seeing in these works which seem to be unrelated to each other. I mean, as the previous statement, today, high-tech is innovating the way of seeing and production, at the same time it also rewriting our perception of the world appearance. In the process of revolution, the seeing is becoming more and more important, it not only covers the original existence of the physical world, and also externalizes the inner into a visible form, so that the seeing could become the center of visual arts. In this kind of circumstance, the seeing was free from the past clichés about style changing, the seeing finally becomes the main body, and the cunning way of define the era, it makes the world become more incredible.

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